This agreement will help secure the rights of environmental HRDs and we hope that at least 11 states will ratify it over the next two years so that it can be fully implemented in each country. However, it will take more than one international agreement to effectively guarantee the rights of environmental HRDs. A year and a half later, the government has still not brought it before Congress. When Jimmy Morales left the presidency at the end of 2019, the Escazú agreement was theoretically still under discussion. New President Alejandro Giammattei took office in January and did not address the subject. “There are deep interests in the dispute between the environment, indigenous peoples and the private sector,” said a human rights defender who wished to remain anonymous. Escazú is a city in Costa Rica that hosted the first negotiations and gave its name to the agreement. That is where ratification was underway. In November 2014, the 10 States that signed the declaration on the application of principle 10 in 2012 decided to start negotiations for a regional agreement.

To this end, a negotiating committee was set up, which was eventually set up by the 24 signatory countries to the agreement. In 2014, the decision that established the bargaining committee required public participation in the process. To enable participation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), which served as the technical secretariat of the negotiation process, established and coordinated the Regional Public Mechanism. More than 2,000 individuals and organizations have registered for the mechanism in order to obtain regular information about the process and to participate in virtual and personal meetings of the negotiating committee. The Caribbean country ratified the regional agreement on 1 December 2020, Robinson, M. (12 December 2019). The Escazú agreement places human rights at the heart of the management of the climate crisis. “If the agreement enters into force and is implemented, countries will be better able to preserve their strategic natural heritage by increasing inclusion and community direction. Ruth Buendía, a Peruvian indigenous leader and winner of the Goldman Environmental Prize, participated in the fifth round of negotiations held in Chile in 2016.

Another indigenous leader, Lizardo Cauper, president of the Inter-Ethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Jungle, was present in New York at the celebration of the agreement in September 2018. Their participation was itself the result of civil society coordination efforts. During the ratification process, we want to move in this direction and continue to involve not only more organizations and activists, but also, in particular, more grassroots organizations, local social movements and indigenous leaders. In the meantime, civil society has set the stage for the discussions. .