Visitors can stay in the United States for 90 days, including time spent in Canada, Mexico, Bermuda or the Caribbean islands when arriving through the United States. The ESTA is required on arrival by plane or cruise ship. The visa exemption applies to land borders without the ESTA, but the VWP does not apply at all (i.e. a visa is required) when a passenger arrives by air or sea with an unlicensed carrier. Citizens of Bahamian do not need a visa to enter the United States if they apply for entry to one of the pre-justice centers at Nassau or Freeport International Airports. Bahamian citizens must not have had a criminal conviction or ineligibility, violated U.S. immigration law in the past, and must be in possession of a valid, un expired passport or Bahamas travel document indicating that they have Bahamian citizenship. In addition to a passport, all applicants from the age of 14 must present a police certificate issued by the Bahamas Police within the last six months. All Bahamas applying for admission to a port of entry other than the nassau or Freeport International Airports pre-licensing facilities must be in possession of a visa valid for entry into the United States. According to the 2015 Terrorist Improvement and Prevention Programme, people who have travelled or travelled to Iran, Iraq, in North Korea, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Sudan or Yemen on or after March 1, 2011 (with a few exceptions for diplomatic or military purposes serving a VWP country) OR travellers from Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan and/or Syria are no longer allowed to travel with the VWP. For more details on changes to the Visa Waiver Improvement Program Improvement Program and the 2015 Terrorist Travel Prevention Program (the Act), see the www.cbp.gov/travel/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program website. Currently, 39 countries are participating in the visa waiver programme: the European Union has lobbied the United States to extend the visa waiver program to its four remaining countries that are not currently: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania.  All of these countries are “roadmaps”, with the exception of Croatia, which only joined the EU in 2013. In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States has lifted visas for its citizens.  In the past, the government of the Northern Mariana Islands had issued entry permits in place of visas. Citizens of all countries in the visa waiver program were exempt from the entry permit for visitors, as were citizens of Taiwan and passport holders of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and British National Level Passports (Overseas).    In accordance with the former island immigration policy, citizens of the following countries or jurisdictions have been barred from entering the northern Mariana Islands: Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Cuba, Egypt, Eritrea, Fujian Province of China, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Myanmar, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.  A recent visa denial for any reason could result in a denial of ESTA authorization, additional screening at the port of entry, or a refusal to enter the United States.