Considering that there is a risk that, in some cases, the consumer will be deprived of his protection under this directive by characterizing the law of a third country as treaty law. Provisions should therefore be included in this directive to avoid this risk. 1. Member States ensure that, in the interests of consumers and competitors, adequate and effective means are put in place to prevent the continued use of abusive clauses in contracts concluded by sellers or suppliers with consumers. In Plato`s best-known dialogue, Republic, the theory of the social contract is again represented, albeit this time less favorable. In Book II, Glaucon proposes a candidate for an answer to the question “What is justice?” explaining the social contract of the nature of justice. What men want most is to be able to commit injustices against others without fear of reprisals, and what they want to avoid most is to be treated unfairly by others without being able to commit injustices in return. Justice is then, he says, the conventional result of the laws and alliances that people make to avoid these extremes. Unable to commit injustice with impunity (like those who wear the Gyges ring) and fearing to be victims themselves, men decide that it is in their best interest to submit to the Convention of Justice.

Socrates rejects this view and the rest of the dialogue focuses on demonstrating that justice is worth having for himself, and that the righteous man is the happy man. From Socrates` point of view, justice therefore has a value that far exceeds the prudential value that Glaucon attributes to it. These opinions in the Crito and in the Republic may seem at first glance incoherent: in the previous dialogue, Socrates shows, with a contractual argument of society, why he remains in prison for him, while in the latter treaty he refuses as a source of justice. These two points of view, however, are conciliatory. From Socrates` point of view, a righteous man is a man who, among other things, recognizes his commitment to the state by respecting his laws. The state is the most fundamental morally and politically fundamental unity and, as such, deserves our greatest loyalty and our deepest respect. Only men know this and act accordingly. But justice is more than just respect for the law, in exchange for respect for others. Justice is the state of a well-regulated soul, and the righteous man will therefore necessarily be the happy man. Justice is therefore more than mere mutual obedience to the law, as Glaucon proposes, but it nevertheless includes obedience to the state and the laws that support it. Although Plato may be the first philosopher to propose a presentation of the argument at the heart of the theory of the social contract, Socrates finally rejects the idea that the social contract is the original source of justice. After rawls argued that any rational person who inhabits the original position and stands behind the veil of ignorance can discover the two principles of justice, Rawls has perhaps constructed the most abstract version of a theory of social contract.